Osteoarthritis of the knee

The joints of the human body to withstand daily stress, so they become susceptible to a variety of destructive factors. Among the diseases of the joints common arthritis, and it affects large and small joints. Knee osteoarthritis – degenerative damage of the knee joint, which interferes with his physical activity. In the absence of proper treatment, the disease can lead to disability.

Osteoarthritis of the knee

Because the disease provokes the characteristic deformation in the joint, it received the name of deforming arthrosis of the knee joint, which is true describes the typical characteristics of the disease. The disease is chronic and is more frequently diagnosed in women, and suffering from obesity and venous pathologies of the lower limbs, but there may be other reasons. Due to age-related changes occurs, and the elderly.

Osteoarthritis in young people can be triggered by injuries. In the result of degenerative changes of the cartilage softens, exfoliates and covered with cracks of varying depth. Subsequently it ceases to perform its function.

Reasons

The appearance of deforming arthrosis of the knee joint caused by a variety of reasons. The traumatic factor is a frequent cause of. Post-traumatic arthritis can develop as a result of a dislocation or fracture in the specified area, as well as injuries of the meniscus. Usually appears gonarthrosis of the knee joint in young people, sports enthusiasts, or those people whose work is related to increased mobility, lifting and carrying heavy loads.

Few people know that such damage can be the result of the treatment, when the injury has cured, but in the long immobilization of the limb having poor circulation in this area. Because of this, and there gonarthrosis.

Increased physical load on the knee is one of the leading factors for the disease. Most often affects athletes who have constant active load on the knee. At a young age arthritis may not manifest, usually rapid changes begin after the cessation of exercise.

There is also the risk of disease in those people who even in adulthood do not reduce stress on the joints. Such athletes increases the risk of fractures and sprains, microtraumas appear. So after forty years, doctors recommend athletes reduce load, switch to coaching. Running and squats are best deleted, as it is these types of activity than just load the knee joint. The most common affected one extremity and there is a left-hand or right-hand gonarthrosis gonarthrosis.

A significant factor for development of osteoarthritis of the knee joint becomes removal of the meniscus. If for any reason the meniscus was removed, it is in 90 percent of cases leads to osteoarthritis – a so-called looping of the knee in the course of which the articular joints are experiencing more friction than usual.

Injury to the meniscus

It looks like during arthroscopy injury meniscus – tear – which could be the trigger for osteoarthritis of the knee

The problem of excess weight is relevant for people with osteoarthritis. Excess body weight creates unnecessary pressure on the joints. Causing not damaged the cartilage and meniscus. And when combined overweight varicose veins of the lower extremities threatens to appear acute arthritis.

Weak ligaments in some patients is a congenital peculiarity, and sometimes the ligaments affected due to other diseases. Anyway, weak ligaments provoke increased mobility in the joint, which significantly abrade the articular surface. The consequences of weak ligaments can no long be felt, while patients don't experience symptoms of the true disease.

Articular pathology also lead to the development of the disease. Most often the culprit of occurrence of arthritis becomes arthritis – inflammation of joint joints. Arthritis observed typical signs of a deterioration of the synovial fluid, pathologic changes in the cartilage, swelling, redness of the soft tissues. Even after cured osteoarthritis chronic processes lead to osteoarthritis.

Violations of metabolic processes often lead to pathologies of the locomotor apparatus. Bones and joints receive less nutrients and minerals to the strength of the tissues. When there is a lack of bone and cartilage surface is exposed to destructive processes, so even at low load there is primary osteoarthritis.

Symptoms

Knee osteoarthritis is manifested by a set of characteristics that are hard to miss. The signs are not felt only in the first degree of development of pathology, but for the second-and third-degree give a clear the symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee:

  • pain is one of the key signs, which is evident not at once. Interesting is the fact that during the development of osteoarthritis, the pain can not be felt even within a few months or years while the disease does not worsen. Pain usually the first symptoms are discomfort during exercise, walking or running, but it works and with the pinching of the meniscus. At the second degree of osteoarthritis pain in joints felt stronger, and in the third degree of the development of painful sensations appear even at rest. Attacks worsen even after short walks without a strong load on the joint, so patients try to spare the knees;
  • Deformation of the knee
  • strain – symptoms are becoming more pronounced in the third stage of the development of arthrosis. The knee will maintain its normal form, but looks a little swollen, edematous. Upon accession of arthritis, the knee will turn red, become hot and painful to the touch;
  • crunch for osteoarthritis appears in the second and third degree of the disease development. Crunchy sounds different from normal clicks that you sometimes hear when extension and flexion of the knee. When arthritis symptoms are characterized by dry, rough sound that occurs abruptly and is accompanied by pain;
  • synovitis – the accumulation of a certain amount of fluid in the joint cavity. It it contains and normal. But the accumulation of excessive quantities leads to the development of cyst – more than just a noticeable Baker's cyst, which can be defined in the unbent position of the legs;
  • limited mobility in the knee is a typical sign of pathology, since patients are first trying to protect themselves from the pain consciously, but at a late stage of osteoarthritis can not straighten limb. In the third degree of development of deforming osteoarthritis of the knee (DOA) and it leads to loss of movement. Patients adapt to move around on bent legs, using the funds support.

The degree of development

Knee arthritis progresses in three stages.

For osteoarthritis of 1 degree the pain is negligible and only occurs during active physical activity on the knee joint. In the first degree fluid may accumulate in the cavity, which in the second and third it is a cyst. The progression of pain occur in the process of moving but quickly pass. Externally, the deformation of the knee joint invisible, so the diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee can be difficult.

Pain in osteoarthritis appears even when the external signs of the disease are not noticeable

Gonarthrosis 3 degrees of knee joint

When the disease of the second degree damage to cartilage more significant. If an x-ray, then it is noticeable stage of growth of bones. At any movement in the knee there is a sharp sudden pain, but returning to a comfortable position, the knee doesn't hurt anymore. In the second stage DOA you can hear typical for osteoarthritis crunch. With the progression of the problems with extension and flexion of the knee worse. The deformity becomes noticeable externally.

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the third degree is characterized by a significant thinning of cartilage. Gradually the cartilage wears away so that the bone is exposed in some areas. X-ray shows a significant number of osteophytes – bony growths, salts, which appeared in the joint cavity. Externally the changes are well marked, and the patient's concerned about the constant pain. The diagnosis is simple – lack of visual examination and is of Roetgen control.

With the progression of this degree, osteoarthritis can lead to complete loss of functionality. In any degree of development of pathology can join the osteoarthritis of the knee.

Treatment

Conservative

A group of the most active drugs against osteoarthritis – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This is the first cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, they can relieve the inflammation, swelling, and promote early recovery. These drugs have significant limitations, so they can't be used without a doctor's recommendation. For example, they can exacerbate stomach ulcers, heart diseases, pathology of the organs of rochevilaine. Prohibited nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and pregnancy.

The second group of tools – chondroprotectors that improve the characteristics of cartilage. They are used in osteoarthritis to restore the correct structure of the cartilage, because in the process of resolving it loses a very important components chondroitin and glucosamine. Therefore, almost all chondroprotectors are composed of both of these substances, but some drugs a single component. With the help of these drugs could help the patient on the first and second stage of the disease, but not in the third, when irreversible changes.

Arthroscopy

During conservative therapy, the doctor will give advice on nutrition. If patients are overweight, you must stick to the diet to normalize weight. How to strengthen a stable weight – will also tell the doctor. Also not recommended to eat a lot of salt, but better to fill your diet with calcium, vitamins and minerals. Would be useful jelly, aspic.

Operational

The most common type of surgery for osteoarthritis – arthroscopy, but there are also other intervention. Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee is usually performed under second and third degree where conservative therapy does not help.

If necessary, minimally invasive intervention, for example, fluid accumulation in the knee joint, it is possible to avoid a puncture. In the cavity of the knee joint is a puncture and pumped out the excess liquid. The method how to diagnose the disease, so at the same time apply it for the treatment. The liquid is taken at the initial stage in a minimal amount, but it significantly improves the health of patients. Then, after researching the biomaterial is derived another part, and the cavity of the joint are corticosteroids.

Arthroplasty is sometimes the only option for patients with osteoarthritis of the third degree

Arthroscopy is spread over all. Through a small incision in the skin introduces several tools that allow you to conduct a survey of the joint and the necessary manipulations in it. With arthroscopy it is possible to remove particles of tissue that have separated from the cartilage, but there is always a risk that there will be secondary gonarthrosis.

If it's badly damaged, there is a need to conduct a periarticular osteotomy. This is a more wide-ranging impact on the joint, causing it to slightly podpilivaya and is set to the desired angle. After surgery rehabilitation longer, but the effect lasts longer.

Ozone therapy

Substantial destruction of the articular elements lead to a complete immobilization of the limb. The joint does not perform its function, and thus requires replacement and need to do the operation. Knee replacement – not a cheap operation, but it gives one the opportunity to return the patient movement of the limb. Set of different knee prostheses made of plastic, ceramic or metal. It's durable construction, allowing for a few decades to forget about the problem.

Physiotherapy

Physical treatments may be applied only when passed the acute phase and the patient is on the mend.

Among the techniques actively used:

  • ozone therapy – the impact on the affected joint with ozone, and injected the substance can injection or applied as a topical treatment. This kind of patients is very effective, so often used in the treatment of various pathologies, including osteoarthritis. The treatment gives an opportunity to intensify the blood circulation in the problem area, to achieve anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. At the same time is carried out and treatment with glucocorticoids;
  • kinesiotherapy – treatment is carried out with the help of special complex of exercises. The load is generated based on individual data, and when performing exercises using special equipment, strengthen the joints. The difference kinesiotherapy from physical therapy to active the effect not only on osteoarthritis of the knee, but also on the whole body.

Used not only ozone therapy and physical therapy, but physical therapy. Good results are more methods to eliminate osteoarthritis knee exercises on Bubnovskiy, Evdokimenko, Dikul. In the course of exercises and after them may need to wear a special knee brace – the brace, to strengthen the right or left knee.