Osteochondrosis is a condition in which there is a number of irregularities in the articular cartilage degenerative nature. Osteochondrosis can occur in different joints, but osteoarthritis most often affects the intervertebral discs. If we consider the localization of the disease, the osteochondrosis can be divided into thoracic, cervical, lumbar.Osteochondrosis is a disease which becomes the cause of pain in the back is about 80% of cases. In the case of complications of degenerative disc disease with herniated disc pain sometimes occur in the head, limbs, other organs. The most common is lumbar degenerative disc disease causing pain in the legs. Many people complain about symptoms cervical degenerative disc disease, in which the aching hands and head. In the thoracic form of the disease the pain occurs in the internal organs.
The causes of osteochondrosis
The original cause of osteochondrosis is considered to be human bipedalism. There are many different theories about the causes of low back pain. Such, for example, are a predisposition to hereditary nature, injury, violation of metabolic processes in the body. The determination of the causes of this disease is complicated by the fact that the disease appears in people of different age, physique and physical level of development.
There is also a theory that the cause of osteochondrosis becomes the accumulation of salts in the spine. However, experts say that it is somewhat misleading. And that is a correct analysis of the causes of the disease is the primary effective treatment of the disease.
In osteochondrosis of the nature of the disease is non-inflammatory, degenerative-dystrophic. In the process of development of disease disturbed nutrition of tissues, regenerates its structure. People who are constantly active exercise, are more durable and elastic tissue of the bone. This is because the discs of the spine in an adult's own vessels are not, therefore, oxygen, and nutrients into the discs come from the tissues, which are located nearby. A similar process can be complete only in the case of active circulation, which is possible only in the process of constant intense muscle performance.
Each intervertebral disc is made up of two parts. In the center of the disc is the nucleus pulposus, which makes the elastic disk, and surrounds it with a strong fibrous ring. If the power supply to the intervertebral discs become worse, the structure of the organic polymer compounds may be destroyed. Due to reduced moisture content in the disk it to become brittle. And if the spine is under pressure, the nucleus pulposus is divided into fragments. As a result of its elasticity is greatly reduced. The fibrous rings also lose strength. Such phenomena be the starting point for the manifestation of the man of degenerative disc disease.In view of the manifestation of degenerative changes in the spine occurs, calcification of the damaged discs, ligaments, capsules. A similar phenomenon – the last stage of the development process of the disease.
Unfortunately, the reverse process after similar changes in the spine virtually impossible. Therefore, the main goal of treatment of osteoarthritis is to maintain the current standing.
Basically manifestations of the disease become more pronounced in humans after reaching thirty-five years of age. Thus, the older the person becomes, the more symptoms he has observed. Recently, however, with complaints of back pain more and more young people go to the doctor.
Reasons for such an early occurrence of degenerative disc disease is primarily a very weak physical activity, problems with posture and curved spine, flat feet and obesity. To date, the main causes of osteochondrosis is considered to be the following:
- predisposition hereditary nature;
- problems with metabolic processes, intoxication, infection;
- the presence of overweight, poor nutrition (low fluid intake lack of micronutrients);
- injuries of the spine, its curvature, incorrect posture, flat feet;
- the existence of poor environmental conditions;
- inactive lifestyle;
- regular lifting of heavy loads, work in awkward positions for a long period of time, the activities in which a person repeats often sharp movements, turns and bending of the trunk;
- too strong physical activity, overloading of the spine due to diseases of the feet, disturbances in the process of wearing shoes, as well as stress during pregnancy;
- sudden cessation of regular exercise people who exercise, stress, persistent Smoking.
Symptoms of degenerative disc disease
People who suffer from degenerative disc disease, primarily manifested pain in the back. Sometimes this pain accompanied by numbness and a sensation of aching in the limbs. If the therapy of osteochondrosis doesn't start on time, the person quickly loses weight, it is atrophy of the limbs. During exercise and exertion, as well as in the process of lifting too heavy objects, in the process of sneezing and coughing, the pain may become more intense. In a patient with osteoarthritis decreases the range of motion, muscle spasms occur.
Cervical degenerative disc disease is manifested due to the nature of the structure of the cervical spine. The cervical vertebrae are much smaller than the other vertebrae of the spine. Accordingly, cervical degenerative disc disease is manifested due to the constant load on the neck. Symptoms of cervical degenerative disc disease is expressed as follows: pain manifest in the hands, neck, shoulders, may occur and headaches. For this type of disease is characterized by the vertebral artery syndrome. The manifestation of this syndrome, the person feels the presence of noise in the head, the eyes flashing "flies", dizzy. Before the eyes can occur colored spots, parallel man feels a strong headache pulsating nature. Symptoms of osteochondrosis sometimes resemble the signs of angina, but the patient in the study no observed change in heart.
In patients with osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine the patient feels pain in the chest. The pain may radiate to the region of the heart and other internal organs.Patients with degenerative disc disease of the lumbosacral spine feel pain in the lower back that can radiate into the legs, pelvis, in the pelvic organs. They marvel at the nerve roots, disturbed sensitivity, may be reduced reflexes and hypotension occur.
Diagnosis of degenerative disc disease
A preliminary diagnosis of "degenerative disc disease" specialist sets during the initial examination of the patient. As a rule, the examination is conducted by a doctor-neurologist. Typically, the patient comes to the office complaining of pain and deformity or limitation.Studies of the spine of the patient is performed in standing, lying and sitting, the doctor inspects him and in motion and at rest. During inspection a doctor be sure to pay attention to the posture of man, especially his body, especially the spine, relief of muscles located near the spine.Thanks to the feeling of the spine, the results of the patient survey can be supplemented with information about whether there is deformity of the spine where the pain, and to determine the degree of its intensity. In the process of feelings is also determined by how tense the muscles near the spine because the muscle tone accompanies most illnesses and injuries. In order to determine the amplitude of the movements of the different parts of the spine, we study the possibility of its bending.In the diagnosis of osteoarthritis is often used computed tomography, x-ray, magnetic resonance imaging. These methods allow you to figure out what level of spinal lesions, to determine if there is a hidden pathology and to specify the diagnosis.With the correct approach to the diagnosis the doctor can determine what tactics of treatment to choose him to be the most effective.
Treatment of degenerative disc disease
Treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease as well as other forms of the disease and its complications is carried out using conservative methods, which aim at elimination of pain, restoration of function of spinal roots, as well as for the prevention of degenerative phenomena in the structures of the spine.
If all methods of conservative treatment does not bring the desired effect, and for this there are special indications, that patients are sometimes assigned surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease. The volume of surgical intervention depends on how the affected spine and intense symptoms.The severity of the disease depends also on the duration of therapy. Typically, the active phase of treatment with conservative methods is generally about 1-3 months. After surgery, the patient recovered approximately one year. After the start of conservative treatment in many patients with osteoarthritis has been increasing of pain. It is expressed the reaction of muscles and other entities for treatment.
If the pain is too strong, it can stop relatively quickly with physiotherapeutic methods, medicines and the implementation of a range of exercises specifically designed for patients with low back pain. It is important to note that an important factor that affects the effectiveness of the treatment is the correct behavior of the patient adequate attitude to the need to adhere to the developed method of treatment. It is important perseverance, patience, and desire to overcome the disease. It is proved that the most effective is conduct medical treatment and recovery after surgery in the health environment and in health centres which spetsializiruyutsya on the treatment of this disease. If you have the necessary equipment and qualified doctors comprehensive treatment will be most effective and efficient.
In complex therapy in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease must include therapeutic exercise, massage, physiotherapy, chiropractic, reflexology, the use of drugs.
One of the most important methods of influence on the musculoskeletal system of man is a therapeutic exercise. The patient regularly performs a certain amount of exercise, during which gradual decompression of the nerve roots, correction of the muscular system, increases flexibility of ligaments and muscles. Special exercises with cervical osteochondrosis also allow an effective prevention of the further development of the disease. The main condition is the regularity of exercises.
When using physiotherapy is the treatment of osteoarthritis by physical factors – magnetic fields, current of low frequency, ultrasound etc. This technique allows to reduce the period of rehabilitation after surgery, and strengthen the influence of different drugs.With the help of massage can relieve muscular tension, improve blood flow, to produce a strengthening effect in General.
To relieve sharp pain used chiropractic. This technique also helps to correct the posture. The pain is also removed by means of traction of the spine – procedures performed on special equipment. When reflexology is the impact reflex zones of the human body and can significantly improve the effects of the other methods.
During the acute illness, treatment is applied with medication, which relieves inflammation, relieved pain, aktiviziruyutsya metabolic processes. Drug is administered intravenously or intramuscularly.
The most tangible results of treatment are observed when using several methods in combination. However, in the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease and other forms of the disease, they should appoint only the doctor.